TOP-10: The deepest places of the Earth
Now we approximately know the inner structure of our planet. The outer solid shell of the Earth is called the bark. It is less than 1% of the planet’s mass and has a thickness of 5 to 70 kilometers. Next comes the mantle (outer and inner), and then the core (outer and inner).
How close do you think a person can fall to the core? Theoretically, we can in the future make devices capable of withstanding colossal loads and temperatures in order to get as close to the core as possible, but in practice we still never got to the sites that are under the bark.
Let’s see what the deepest places on the planet we know.
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10. Lake of the Sunset
Depth of 319 meters
The lake is the world’s largest natural well. It is located in Central Mexico. Its depth is 319 meters, and the diameter is about 100 meters. At the same time, a hole was found on one of the walls of the well, which may be the entrance to another, deeper “well” or even to the system of deep underground caves.
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9. Tagebau Hambach
The depth of 370 meters
This is a coal mine, which is located in Elsdorf in Germany. It is considered the deepest open mine in the world. Its depth is about 370 meters, and the area is about 33.9 square kilometers. Near the quarry is an artificial hill, which was formed from the material selected from the quarry.
The hill has its own name Sophienhöhe (Sophienhöhe) and is the largest artificial hill in the world. Its height is 301 meters.
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8. Welledding Well
The depth of 392 meters
Let’s start with a man-made feat, which appeared in 1862 in the English town of Woodingdean. It all began with the fact that in 1858, when building a new building, a source of water was required. It was decided to dig a well. To reduce the costs of the well, the workers dug their hands. It was planned to go deeper into the earth for 122 meters, overlaying the walls of the well with a brick.
Workers descended into the well, and the excess land was raised by buckets to the surface. After 2 years of digging, the depth of the well exceeded the design by 12 meters, but there was no water. Given that this depth was just below sea level.
Then it was decided at this depth to dig four horizontal shafts to get to the water. But it also did not yield any results. Then the organizers decided not to give up and at any cost to get to the water. At the end of one of the horizontal shafts, they began to dig deeper. Two years later, in March 1862, the workers felt the earth begin to rise in the mine. People in a hurry began to rise to the surface. After 45 minutes, the water rushed out.
This well is the deepest well in the world, which was dug by hand.
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7. Lake Baikal
The depth of 1642 meters
Reaching the maximum depth of 1,642 meters, Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. The lake is a treasure not only of Russia, but of the whole world, it is a natural reservoir for the purest fresh water. There are many plants and animals that are unique here.
It is also interesting that if all water from Baikal is divided equally among all citizens of Russia, then for each inhabitant there will be approximately 2780 railroad tank cars with 60 tons each.
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6. The Cave of Cruber
The depth of 2199 meters
This is the deepest cave in the world located in Abkhazia not far from the city of Gagra. The cave has several entrances, located at an altitude above 2000 meters above sea level. It is a system of several wells, which are connected by lazes and galleries. Inside there are several high plumb bobs, the deepest of which are 110, 115 and 152 meters.
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5. The Kidd mine
The depth of 3048 meters
The deepest mine in the world is the Mpongor mine in South Africa. Its depth is 4000 meters. However, a mine called Kidd Mine in Ontario, Canada, which has a depth of 3,048 meters, is closer to the core of the Earth than the mine of the Hp. It’s because our planet does not have an ideal ball shape. Because of the rotation of the Earth in the equatorial part of it, the diameter is slightly larger than that of the poles. The difference in size is about 140 kilometers. So the person standing at the equator is removed on average 70 kilometers from the core further than the person standing on the pole.
The Kidd mine was discovered in 1964 as an open cut and gradually expanded underground. Now it is the largest copper mine in the world. It employs 2,200 workers and produces millions of tons of ore per year.
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4. The Litke Gorge
The depth of 5449 meters
Litke Gorge (Litke Chute) is an oceanic trough located northeast of Greenland, 350 km north of Spitsbergen, in the Eurasian basin in the Arctic Ocean. This is the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean, its depth is 5449 meters.
The gorge was found and explored by the Soviet expedition on the icebreaker Fedor Litke in 1955.
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3. Milwaukee Depression
The depth of 8385 meters
Milwaukee Trough is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean. Its maximum depth is 8385 meters. The place is named after the American cruiser, who in 1939 discovered it.
The Milwaukee Depression is located in the Puerto Rican trench, which is located on the border of two lithospheric plates. The Caribbean plate moves to the east, and the North American to the west.
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2. The Challenger’s Abyss
The depth of 10994 meters
The first five of the deepest sea depressions in the world include depressions located in the Pacific Ocean, and the most famous of them is the Mariana Trench, with a maximum depth of 10,994 meters (Challenger’s Abyss).
The name of the depression originated from the Mariana Islands, which are nearby. The depression stretches for 1500 kilometers, they have a standard V-shaped profile. The bottom of the hollow is flat, with a width of 1 to 5 km.
The water pressure at the bottom of the Challenger Abyss is 108600 Pa, this is 1100 times higher than the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth. People plunged twice into the bottom of the Mariana Trench. The first dive was carried out in 1960 by the researcher Jacques Picard and the US Navy, Don Walsh. Their bathyscaphe “Trieste” had a wall thickness of 127 millimeters to resist the monstrous pressure. The second time at the bottom of the hollow was the famous director James Cameron in 2012. He immersed himself in the Challenger’s Abyss on a single-seater Deepsea Challenger deep-sea vehicle. During the dive, he was filming in 3D.
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1. Kola Superdeep Well
The depth of 12262 meters
This is the deepest man-made place on Earth. It is located in the Murmansk region near the city of Zapolyarny
The work on the beginning of drilling of the well was timed to coincide with the centenary of the birth of VI Lenin in 1970. Unlike others, this well was drilled specifically to study the structure of the planet. The site was chosen specifically where the supposed thickness of the earth’s crust is the thinnest.
Up to 7000 meters drilling was in normal mode. The drill passed through a uniform granite layer of the lithospheric plate. But below the breed was less dense, crumbling, jammed equipment. It was necessary to slightly change the angles of drilling.
After 13 years in 1983, drillers reached the level of 12066 meters and stopped. But after the resumption of drilling, there was a break in the drill string. Drilling had to start anew from a depth of 7000 meters. By 1990, the bury crossed the mark of 12262 meters and the accident was repeated. Then, for financial reasons, the project had to be frozen, and in 2008 the project “Kola Superdeep Well” was finally abandoned.
I really want to believe that Russian science will turn its face to this project. He has many perspectives. The lion’s part of the work has already been accomplished, and in order to revive the project several million rubles are required, the amount of lifting is for a country with high scientific ambitions.
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It was an article about the deepest places of the Earth. We hope that you learned something new and interesting from us. Thank you for your attention!