German scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and the University of Tuebingen have partially restored the gene of 90 Egyptian mummies, from 3500 to 1500 years old. Analyze it. And they came to the conclusion: the ancient Egyptians were not Africans. Some were Turks, others were from southern Europe and from places where Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia and Abkhazia are now.
Earlier, similar studies were conducted by biologists from the genealogical center iGENEA, located in Zurich. They analyzed the genetic material extracted from just one mummy. But the very pharaoh Tutankhamun. His DNA was extracted from bone tissue – specifically from the left shoulder and left leg.
iGENEA specialists compared the gene of the boy-pharaoh and modern Europeans. And they found out: many of them are relatives of Tutankhamun. On average, half of European men are “tutankhamuns.” And in some countries, their share reaches 60-70 percent – as, for example, in the UK, in Spain and in France.
DNA was compared by so-called haplogroups – characteristic sets of DNA fragments that are transmitted from generation, remaining almost unchanged. Pharaoh’s relatives were “given away” by a common haplogroup called R1b1a2.
Scientists emphasize: the Tutankhamun R1b1a2, so common among European men, is very rare among modern Egyptians. The share of its carriers in them does not exceed one percent.
– Is not it really, very interesting that Tutankhamun is a genetic European, – Roman Scholz, director of the iGENEA Center, is surprised.
Genetic studies of Swiss and Germans once again confirmed: modern Egyptians, in their total mass, are not degraded descendants of the pharaohs. They simply do not have anything in common with him, their ancient rulers. Which in some way, explains the features of Egyptian society.
The Pharaohs themselves are not local.
– I believe that the common ancestor of Egyptian kings and Europeans lived in the Caucasus about 9,500 years ago, – said Scholz. – About 7 thousand years ago, his direct descendants settled throughout Europe. And somebody got to Egypt and got into the Pharaohs.
It turns out, however, that since the great-grandfathers, the ancestors of Tutankhamun, and he himself were the persons of Caucasian nationality.
The time will come and they will come to life. As you would like
Johannes Krause, a paleogeneist from the University of Tübingen, reported in the journal Nature Communications that the genome of three mummies out of 151 alone, with which German researchers worked, was recovered completely. Their DNA is well preserved. Lived up to our days, as the scientist put it. Preserved, despite the hot Egyptian climate, high humidity in places of burial and chemicals used for embalming.
The restoration of the genome promises – even in the distant future – restoration of its owner. By cloning. Which will perfectly suit the ancient Egyptians, who expected somehow and someday to rise from the dead. For this they became mummies. As if they had foreseen that the remains of flesh and bones would be useful.